Groundwater Fluctuation Patterns and Groundwater Recharge Estimation in Unconfined Aquifer of Yogyakarta City, Indonesia


  • Wahyu Wilopo Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
  • Doni Prakasa Eka Putra Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia



Groundwater fluctuation, Groundwater recharge, Rainfall trend, Yogyakarta city


Yogyakarta is one of the cities in Indonesia, which has a high population density. The development of the city is very rapid in the last decade, especially in the infrastructure of including hotels, apartments, and shopping malls. Groundwater is the main resource to support almost all water supplies for daily purposes in this city. Increasing of groundwater abstraction will cause a decline in groundwater level and a drought in the future. Therefore, this study aims to find the trend of groundwater fluctuation related to rainfall to estimate groundwater recharge in Yogyakarta city. The study was carried out by monthly measurement of groundwater level at four monitoring wells that spread evenly in the Yogyakarta city from 2011 to 2017 and compare with monthly rainfall and annual development of a hotel in Yogyakarta city. Analysis of annual trend rainfall and groundwater fluctuation used nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and the magnitude of a trend using nonparametric Sen’s method. Groundwater recharge was estimated by using the water table fluctuation (WTF) method. The results of the study showed that the trend of rainfall is positive following by groundwater level fluctuation trend in the west and east parts of the city. However, in the middle and south parts of the city, the trend of groundwater fluctuation shows a negative due to the over-exploitation of groundwater by hotels. Groundwater recharge is estimated at around 158 up to 538 mm/year based on the WTF method.  Higher groundwater recharge was identified in the middle and east parts of the city due to high contribution from urban recharge.


Ahmad, I., Tang, D., Wang, T.F., Wang, M., Wagan, B. (2015) Precipitation Trends over Time Using Mann-Kendall and Spearman’s rho Test in Swat River Basin Pakistan, Advances in Meteorology 2015:431860, 15p.

Apaydin, A. (2010) Response of groundwater to climate variation: fluctuations, of groundwater level and well yields in the Halacli aquifer (Cankiri, Turkey), Journal Environmental Monitoring Assessment (2010) 165:653-663.

Boretti, A. and Rosa, L. (2019) Reassessing the projections of the world water development report, Npj Clean Water, 2(1): 1-6.

BPS-Statistics of Yogyakarta City (2018) Yogyakarta city in Figure 2017, BPS-Statistics of Yogyakarta City, 424p.

Cai, Z. and Ofterdinger, U. (2016) Analysis of Groundwater –level response to rainfall and estimation of annual recharge in fractured hard rock aquifers, NW Ireland, Journal of Hydrology, 535: 71-84.

Crosbie R.S., Binning, P., and Kalma, J.D. (2005) A time series approach to inferring groundwater recharge using the water table fluctuation method, Water Resources Research, Vol. 41: 1-9.

Dinka, M.O., Loiskandl, W., Furst, J., Ndambuki, J.M. (2013) Seaosanal behavior and spatial fluctuations of Groundwater levels in Long-Term Irrigated Agriculture: the Case of a Sugar Estate, Pol.J.Environ.Stud. Vol.22, No.5: 1325-1334.

Endo, N., Matsumoto, J., and Lwin, T. (2009) Trends in Precipitation Extremes over Southeast Asia, SOLA, 2009, Vol. 5: 168‒171.

Fathmawati, F., Fachiroh, J., Sutomo, A.H., Putra, D.P.E. (2018) Origin and distribution of nitrate in water well of settlement areas in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Environ Monit Assess 190, 628.

Gilbert, R.O. (1987) Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company In., New York, USA, 320p.

Healy, R.W. and Cook, P.G. (2002) Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge, Hydrogeology Journal 10:91–109.

Lutz, A., Minyila, S., Saga, B., Diarra, S., Apambire, B., Thomas, J. (2015) Fluctuation of Groundwater Levels and Recharge Patterns in Northern Ghana, Climate 2015, 3: 1-15.

Mac Donald and Partners (1984) Greater Yogyakarta Groundwater Resources Study, Volume 3: Groundwater. Directorate General of Water Resources Development Project (P2AT), Ministry of Public Works, Government of the Republic of Indonesia, 134p.

Manna, F., Murray, S., Abbey, D., Martin, P., Cherry, J., and Parker, B. (2019) Spatial and temporal variability of groundwater recharge in a sandstone aquifer in a semiarid region, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23: 2187–2205.

Manny, L., Atmaja, R.R.S., Putra, D.P.E. (2016) Groundwater level changes in shallow aquifer of Yogyakarta City, Indonesia: Distribution and Causes, Journal of Applied Geology, Vol. 1(2): 89 -99.

Mohammad, A.H., Shatanawi, K., Odeh, T. (2016) A modified modeling of potentiality and vulnerability of the groundwater resources in Amman Zarqa Basin, Jordan, Kuwait J. Sci. 43 (1): 208-221.

Pohlert, T. (2016) Trend: Non-Parametric Trend Test and Change-Point Detection. R Package Version 0.1.0.

Putra, D. P. E. (2007). The impact of urbanization on groundwater quality; a case study in Yogyakarta City-Indonesia. Mitteilungen zur Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie, heft 96, Ph.D. thesis, Rheinisch-Westfalische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany.

Salmi, T., Määttä, A., Anttila, P., Airola, T.R., Amnell, T. (2002) Detecting Trends of Annual Values of Atmospheric Pollutants by The Mann-Kendall Test and Sen’s Slope Estimates -The Excel Template Application Makesens, Ilmanlaadun Julkaisuja Publikationer Om Luftkvalitet Publications on Air Quality No. 31, Ilmatieteen Laitos Meteorologiska Institutet Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 35p.

Scanlon, B.R., Healy, R.W., Cook, P.G. (2002) Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge, Hydrogeology Journal (2002) 10:18–39.

Sophocleous, M. (1991) Combining soil water balance and water level fluctuation methods to estimate natural ground-water recharge: practical aspects. Journal of Hydrology, 124: 229–241.

Varni, M., Comas, R., Weinzettel, P. & Dietrich, S. (2013) Application of the water table fluctuation method to characterize groundwater recharge in the Pampa plain, Argentina, Hydrological Sciences Journal – Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques, 58 (7) 1445-1555.

Wilopo, W., Putra, D.P.E., Setiawan, H., Setyawan, K.D., 2020, Impact Assessment of apartment building foundation to Terban spring discharge, Yogyakarta City, Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, Vol. 7 (3): 2111-2122.

Winter, T.C., Harvey, J.W., Franke, O.L., Alley, W.M., 1998, Groundwater and Surface Water – a single resources, US Geological Survey, Circ. 1139, 87p.

World Water Assessment Programme (Nations Unies), (2018) The United Nations World Water Development Report 2018 (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, New York, United States) www.





Earth & Environment