Groundwater Fluctuation Patterns and Groundwater Recharge Estimation in Unconfined Aquifer of Yogyakarta City, Indonesia
Keywords:Groundwater fluctuation, Groundwater recharge, Rainfall trend, Yogyakarta city
AbstractYogyakarta is one of the cities in Indonesia, which has a high population density. The development of the city is very rapid in the last decade, especially in the infrastructure of including hotels, apartments, and shopping malls. Groundwater is the main resource to support almost all water supplies for daily purposes in this city. Increasing of groundwater abstraction will cause a decline in groundwater level and a drought in the future. Therefore, this study aims to find the trend of groundwater fluctuation related to rainfall to estimate groundwater recharge in Yogyakarta city. The study was carried out by monthly measurement of groundwater level at four monitoring wells that spread evenly in the Yogyakarta city from 2011 to 2017 and compare with monthly rainfall and annual development of a hotel in Yogyakarta city. Analysis of annual trend rainfall and groundwater fluctuation used nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and the magnitude of a trend using nonparametric Sen’s method. Groundwater recharge was estimated by using the water table fluctuation (WTF) method. The results of the study showed that the trend of rainfall is positive following by groundwater level fluctuation trend in the west and east parts of the city. However, in the middle and south parts of the city, the trend of groundwater fluctuation shows a negative due to the over-exploitation of groundwater by hotels. Groundwater recharge is estimated at around 158 up to 538 mm/year based on the WTF method. Higher groundwater recharge was identified in the middle and east parts of the city due to high contribution from urban recharge.
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