An investigation of green tea’s effect on mackerel (Scomber Scombrus)’s protein structure during frozen storage by FT-Raman spectroscopy
Keywords:Frozen fish, Green tea, Lipid peroxidation, Raman Spectroscopy.
FT-Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS) was used to investigate green tea’s potential protective effect as an antioxidant during frozen storage of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Atlantic mackerel was stored for more than 26 weeks at −10 or–80°C (control), with or without green tea (GT). Raman analysis showed substantial protein structure changes due to frozen storage, especially at a higher storage temperature (−10°C), compared with −80°C or −10°C with instant GT, indicated by a decrease in the tyrosine doublet ratio, alpha helix content and O-H stretching bands intensities, along with an increase in tryptophan band intensity and β sheet structure. Using GT as antioxidant, at concentrations of about 250 ppm, can protect the fish protein structure for a limited storage period. However, for optimum freshness, fish should be stored at very low temperatures.
Ang, J.F. & Hultin, H.O. (1989). Denaturation of cod myosin during freezing after modification with formaldehyde. Journal of Food Science, 54 (4): 814-818
Badii, F. & Howell, N.K. (2000). Effect of antioxidants, citrate, and cryoprotectants on protein denaturation and texture of frozen cod (Gadus morhua). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50 (7): 2053-2061.
Badii, F. & Howell, N. K. (2002). Changes in the texture and structure of cod and haddock fillets during frozen storage. Food hydrocolloids, 16 (4): 313-9.
Badii, F., Zhdan, P. & Howell, N.K. (2004). Elucidation of protein aggregation in frozen cod and haddock by transmission electron microscopy/immunocytochemistry, light microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84 (14):1919-28.
Bora, A.F.M., Ma, S., Li, X. & Liu, L. (2018). Application of microencapsulation for the safe delivery of green tea polyphenols in food systems: Review and recent advances. Food Research International, 1 (105):241-9.
Byler, D.M. & Susi, H. (1988). Application of computerized infrared and Raman spectroscopy to conformation studies of casein and other food proteins. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 3 (2):73-88.
Careche, M., Herrero, A.M., Rodríguez-Casado, A., Del Mazo, M.L. & Carmona, P. (1999). Structural changes of hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) fillets: effects of freezing and frozen storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47 (3):952-959.
Colaianni, S.M. & Nielsen, O.F. (1995). Low-frequency Raman spectroscopy. Journal of molecular structure, 347, 267-283.
Chen, M.C., Lord, R.C. & Mendelsohn, R. (1973). Laser-excited Raman spectroscopy of biomolecules: IV. Thermal denaturation of aqueous lysozyme. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Protein Structure, 328 (2):252-60
Diarrassouba, F., Garrait, G., Remondetto, G., Alvarez, P. & Beyssac, E. (2015). Subirade, M.: Food protein-based microspheres for increased uptake of vitamin D3. Food chemistry, 173, 1066-1072.
Elgamouz, A., Alsaidi, R., Alsaidi, A., Zahri, M., Almehdi, A. & Bajou, K. (2019). The Effects of Storage on Quality and Nutritional Values of Ehrenberg’s Snapper Muscles (Lutjanus Ehrenbergi): Evaluation of Natural Antioxidants Effect on the Denaturation of Proteins. Biomolecules, 9 (9):442.
Fan, W., Xing, L., Chen, N., Zhou, X., Yu, Y. & Liu, S. (2019). Promotion Effect of Succinimide on Amyloid Fibrillation of Hen Egg-White Lysozyme. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 123 (38):8057-64.
Howell, N. & Li‐Chan, E. (1996). Elucidation of interactions of lysozyme with whey proteins by Raman spectroscopy. International journal of food science & technology, 31(5):439-51.
Howell, N.K. & Saeed, S. (1999). The effect of antioxidants on the production of lipid oxidation products and transfer of free radicals in oxidised lipid-protein systems. Antioxidants in human health and disease, 43-54.
Howell, N.K., Herman, H. & Li-Chan, E.C. (2001). Elucidation of protein− lipid interactions in a lysozyme− corn oil system by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49 (3):1529-33.
Herrero, A.M., Carmona, P. & Careche, M. (2004). Raman spectroscopic study of structural changes in hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) muscle proteins during frozen storage. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 52 (8):2147-53.
Hultin, H.O. & Kelleher, S.D. (2000). Surimi processing from dark muscle fish. Food science and technology, New York, Marcel Dekker, 4, 59-78.
Jenkins, A.L., Larsen, R.A. & Williams, T.B. (2005). Characterization of amino acids using Raman spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 61 (7):1585-94.
Krimm, S. & Bandek0ar, J. (1986). in Advances in protein chemistry. Elsevier, 38, 181-364.
Li-Chan, E. (1994). Developments in the detection of adulteration of olive oil. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 5 (1): 3-11.
Li-Chan, E., Nakai, S. & Hirotsuka, M. (1994). Raman spectroscopy as a probe of protein structure in food systems. In Protein structure-function relationships in foods, 163-197. Springer, Boston, MA.
Maeda, Y. & Kitano, H. (1995). The structure of water in polymer systems as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 51 (14): 2433-2446.
Mandrile, L., Zeppa, G., Giovannozzi, A.M. & Rossi, A.M. (2016). Controlling protected designation of origin of wine by Raman spectroscopy. Food chemistry, 211, 260-267.
Miura, T., Takeuchi, H. & Harada, I. (1991). Raman spectroscopic characterization of tryptophan side chains in lysozyme bound to inhibitors: role of the hydrophobic box in the enzymic function. Biochemistry, 30 (24):6074-6080.
Ngarize, S., Adams, A. & Howell, N.K. (2004). Studies on egg albumen and whey protein interactions by FT-Raman spectroscopy and rheology. Food Hydrocolloids, 18 (1):49-59.
Ogawa, M., Nakamura, S., Horimoto, Y., An, H., Tsuchiya, T. & Nakai, S. (1999). Raman spectroscopic study of changes in fish actomyosin during setting. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 47 (8): 3309-3318.
Pereira de Abreu, D.A., Maroto, J., Villalba Rodríguez, K. & Cruz, J.M. (2012). Antioxidants from barley husks impregnated in films of low‐density polyethylene and their effect over lipid deterioration of frozen cod (Gadus morhua). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92 (2): 427-432.
Petillo, D., Hultin, H.O., Krzynowek, J. & Autio, W.R. (1998). Kinetics of antioxidant loss in mackerel light and dark muscle. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 46 (10): 4128-4137.
Romotowska, P.E., Gudjónsdóttir, M., Kristinsdóttir, T.B., Karlsdóttir, M.G., Arason, S. & Jónsson, Á. Kristinsson, H.G. (2016). Effect of brining and frozen storage on physicochemical properties of well-fed Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) intended for hot smoking and canning. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 72, 199-205.
Rudy, M.D., Kainz, M.J., Graeve, M., Colombo, S.M. & Arts, M.T. (2016). Handling and storage procedures have variable effects on fatty acid content in fishes with different lipid quantities. PloS one, 11 (8): e0160497.
Saeed, S. & Howell, N.K. (2002). Effect of lipid oxidation and frozen storage on muscle proteins of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82 (5): 579-586.
Saeed, S., Gillies, D., Wagner, G. & Howell, N.K. (2006). ESR and NMR spectroscopy studies on protein oxidation and formation of dityrosine in emulsions containing oxidised methyl linoleate. Food and chemical toxicology, 44 (8): 1385-1392.
Sharanagat, V.S., Kansal, V. & Singh, L. (2019). Fish freezing: principle, methods, and scope. Technological Processes for Marine Foods, From Water to Fork: Bioactive Compounds, Industrial Applications, and Genomics, 97.
Shenouda, S.Y. (1980). Theories of protein denaturation during frozen storage of fish flesh. In Advances in food research 26, 275-311. Academic Press.
Sun, D.W. (2016). Handbook of frozen food processing and packaging. CRC press.
Tang, S., Sheehan, D., Buckley, D.J., Morrissey, P.A. & Kerry, J.P. (2001). Anti‐oxidant activity of added tea catechins on lipid oxidation of raw minced red meat, poultry and fish muscle. International journal of food science & technology, 36 (6): 685-692.
Tu, A.T. (1986). Peptide backbone conformation and microenvironment of protein side chains. Advances in infrared and Raman spectroscopy, 13, 47-112.
Undeland, I., Ekstrand, B.& Lingnert, H. (1998). Lipid oxidation in minced herring (Clupea harengus) during frozen storage. Effect of washing and precooking. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46 (6): 2319-2328.
Xiong, G., Han, M., Kang, Z., Zhao, Y., Xu, X. & Zhu, Y. (2016). Evaluation of protein structural changes and water mobility in chicken liver paste batters prepared with plant oil substituting pork back-fat combined with pre-emulsification. Food chemistry, 196, 388-395.
Yamamoto, S., Ohnishi, E., Sato, H., Hoshina, H., Ishikawa, D. & Ozaki, Y. (2019). Low-Frequency Vibrational Modes of Nylon 6 Studied by Using Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies and Density Functional Theory Calculations. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 123 (25): 5368-5376.