Ameliorative effects of aqueous seed-extract of Dacryodes edulis on doxorubicin-induced cardiac tissue damage in albino rats


  • Matthias C. Ominyi Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki
  • Augustine A. Uwakwe University of Port Harcourt
  • Friday N. Nweke Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo
  • Fedrick U. Ali Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki
  • Moses E. Ogbanshi Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki
  • Lilian N. Ebenyi Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki
  • Victor U. Nwankwo Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki
  • Emmanuel O. Ogueji Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo



Effects, Dacryodes edulis, Cardiac, Tissue, Damage


Ameliorative effects of aqueous seed-extract of Dacryodes edulis on doxorubicin-induced cardiac tissue damage in albino rats were investigated. The animals were divided into groups and fed for 14 days to acclimatize. Single dose of 15 mg/kg body weight doxorubicin was given intraperitoneally to all the groups except control. After 48 hours, two animals were randomly selected from each group and sacrificed under ethyl-ether anesthesia, to harvest their hearts for histological studies. Groups 1 and 2 were given normal saline, while groups 3 and 4 were treated with 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight of aspirin and vitamin C. Groups 5-8 received different doses of aqueous seed-extract (200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg body weight). Treatments lasted for 21 days and the rats were sacrificed under anesthesia, and their hearts harvested and fixed in formol saline for examination. The photomicrograph revealed severe and focal loss of cardiac fibre, intra-myocardial hemorrhages, and fragmentation of cardiac muscle and disorganization of histoarchitecture in the induced but untreated animal groups. Micrographs showed significant ameliorative effects of the extract in dose-dependent way and healing effects of the standard drugs. These results showed that aqueous seed-extract of Dacryodes edulis exhibits therapeutic potentials for cardiac disorders.

Author Biographies

Matthias C. Ominyi, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

Department of Biotechnology

Lecturer 1

Augustine A. Uwakwe, University of Port Harcourt

Department of Biochemistry


Friday N. Nweke, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo

Department of Biology/Microbiology/Biotechnology

Associate Professor

Fedrick U. Ali, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

Department of Biotechnology

Lecturer 1

Moses E. Ogbanshi, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

Department of Biochemistry

Senior Lecturer

Lilian N. Ebenyi, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

Department of Biotechnology

Senior Lecturer

Victor U. Nwankwo, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

Department of Biotechnology

Assistant Lecturer

Emmanuel O. Ogueji, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture

Associate Professor


Abdalla, A. N., Almaliki, W. H., Mukhtar, M. H., Anwar, F. & Shahid, I. (2016). Ameliorative influence of dietary dates on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity. Pharmacology and Pharmacy, 7: 343-353.

Agbafor, K. N., Ominyi, M. C., Nzubechukwu, E., Ebenyi, L. N. & Ogbanshi, M. E. (2017). Quantitative Evaluation of Chemical Constituents of Seeds of Dacryodes edulis. IDOSR Journal of Experimental Sciences, 2(2):45-54.

Ajibesin, K. K. (2011). Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J. Lam: A Review on its medicinal, phytochemical and economic properties. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 5(1):32- 41.

Bier, C. C. & Jaenke, R. S. (1976). Function of myocardial mitochondria in the Adriamycin induced cardiomyopathy of rabbits. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 57:1091–1094.

Bristow, M. R., Sageman, W. S. & Scott, R. H. (1980). Acute and chronic cardiovascular effects of doxorubicin in dog. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 2:487–515.

Carnes, C. A., Chung, M. K., Nakayama, T., Nakayama, H. & Baliga, R. S. (2001). Ascorbate attenuates atrial pacing-induced peroxynitrite formation and electrical remodeling and decreases the incidence of post-operation atrial fibrillation. Circulation Research, 89: 32-38.

Carr, A. C. & Frei, B. (1999). Towards a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69:1086-1087.

Davis, K. J. & Dorshow, J. H. (1986). Redox cycling of anthracyclines by cardiac mitochondria anthracycline radical formation by NADPH dehydrogenase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261:3060-3067.

Geetha, A. & Devi, C. S. (1992). Effect of Doxorubicin on heart mitochondrial enzymes in rats: A protective role for alphatocopherol. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 30:615–618.

Hanaa, H. A., Fathia, M., Gamal, A. E. & Senot, H. D. (2005). Cardioprotective activity of melatonin and its novel synthesized derivatives on doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Medical Chemistry, 13:1847–1857.

Hardina, R., Gersl, V., Klimtova, I., Simunek, T. & Machackova, J. (2000). Anthracycine induced cardiotoxicity. Acta Medica, 43: 75-82.

Jirovetz, L., Buchbauera, G., Geissler, M., Ngassoum, M. B. & Parmentier, M. (2003). Analysis of aroma compounds of African pears via differently coated solid-phase micro-extraction fiber (SPME) using GC-FID and GCMS. European Food Research Technology, 218:40-43.

Lenaz, L. & Page, J. (1976). Cardiotoxicity of adriamycin and related anthracyclines. Cancer Treatment Review, 3:111–120.

Loren, E. W. (2005). Doxorubicin induces cardiomyocyte dysfunction via p38 MAP kinase dependent oxidative stress mechanism. Cancer Detection Preview, 29:294–299.

Mehmet, H. K., Serap, C., Aysenur, A., Yavuz, Y. & Yasemin, A. (2014). Effects of Aspirin on Serum Total Antioxidant Activity in a Short Term Period. Siriraj Medical Journal, 66:42-44.

Myers, C, F., McGuire, W. P. & Liss, R. H. (1977). Adriamycin: The role of lipid peroxidation in cardiac toxicity and tumor response. Science, 197:165–167.

Oliveira, P. J., Bjork, J. A., Santos, M. S., Leino, R. L.& Froberg, M. K. (2004). Carvedilol-mediated antioxidant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiac mitochondrial toxicity. Toxicology of Applied Pharmacology, 200:159–168.

Ominyi M.C., Agbafor K. N., Ali F. U., Ogbanshi M. E. & Ebenyi L. N. (2018). Cardioprotective activity of aqueous and ethylacetate seedextracts of Dacryodes edulis on doxorubicin induced heart Damage in albino rats. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences, 7(6): 1046-1064.

Singal, P. K., Forbes, M. & Iliskovic, N. (2000). Adriamycin induced heart failure: mechanism and modulation. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 207:77-86.

Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd, 191-289.

Talib, V. H. & Khurana, S. R. (1999). Handbook of Medical laboratory Technology. 2nd edition, New Delhi: C. B. S. Publishers and Distributors, 208-305.

Viswanatha, S. A., Wangikar, U., Koti, B. C., Thippeswamy, A. & Ronad, P. (2011). Cardioprotective effect of ascorbic acid on doxorubicin-induced myocardial toxicity in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 43 (5): 507-511

Zhon, S., Palmeira, C. M. & Wallace, K. B. (2001). Doxorubicin induced persistent oxidative stress to cardiac myocytes. Letter of Toxicology.121:151–157.