Prefix oriented N4WA coding scheme for improved tampering detection in relational data

Waqas Haider, Muhammad Sharif, Hadia Bashir, Mudassar Raza, Mussarat Yasmin


In this paper, a memory efficient N4WA coding scheme (breifed in section 3.1) ispresented to detect tampering and restoring modified data values in relational data.The existing watermarking schemes for tampering detection do not provide necessarycomponents, such as accurate localization and restoration in cooperation. These flawsdegrade the quality and dependability of the tampering detection scheme. However, inthe proposed scheme, firstly the compressed code W is generated from original data M,using N4WA encoding and stored at certification authority CA. Secondly, the assumedsuspicious data M’ is given to N4WA encoding for generating another compressed codeW’. Meanwhile, the genrated W and W’ are compared to detect and accurately localizetampering in M’. Finally utilizing localization information Tcr, W and N4WA decodingassist in restoring the tampered data values. Investigational outcomes indicate thatfor the database relations of all data types, the minimum to maximum alterations aredetected, localized and restored successfully.


Lossless compression; relational data restoration; tampering attacks; zero watermarking.

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