Assessment of stack emissions during different phases of electric arc furnace steelmaking process
Keywords:Air Pollution, Electric Arc Furnace, Negative Impact, Stack Emission gases, Steel making
AbstractElectric arc furnace steelmaking is a fast growing manufacturing process in which steel scrap is re-melted and desired quality steel grades are produced. It is considered to be a process which generates high degree of harmful gases and hazardous metal dust. The aim of this paper constitutes the assessment of flue gases and its air environmental factor pollution to the steelmaking in different technological process phases of electric arc furnace. The main components of the process flue gas are Carbon Oxide, Sulfur Oxide, Carbon dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide. The flue gas concentrations were analyzed by Portable combustion and stack Emissions gas analyzer. The overall process is divided into two phases; melting and blowing. A comparison was carried out between both technological phases and its respective flue gas concentrations. In melting phase, the minimum and maximum concentration of Carbon Oxide, Sulfur Oxide and Nitrogen Oxide were 75-836 mg/Nm3, 4-33 mg/Nm3 and 1-60 mg/Nm3 respectively. During the blowing phase the minimum and maximum concentration of Carbon Oxide, Sulfur Oxide and Nitrogen Oxide were 12-415 mg/Nm3, 2-14 mg/Nm3 and 1-42 mg/Nm3 respectively. The results were interpreted and compared with concentration of gaseous emissions existing in NEQS (National Environmental Quality Standards) of Pakistan. According to this study, it is evident that melting phase has more negative impact on the air environment factor then blowing phase, so it is necessary to mitigate the pollutant concentration during this technological phase. Few recommendations have offered including installation of a chemical energy package at Electric Arc furnace to reduce pollutant gases, so that the environmental impact becomes minimal and yield of the process maximizes
An, L. B. Ş. (2011) ‘ASSESSMENT OF AIR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR POLLUTION TO THE STEELMAKING’, (Lviii).
Cantone, L., Nordio, F., Hou, L., Apostoli, P., Bonzini, M., Tarantini, L., Angelici, L., Bollati, V., Zanobetti, A., Schwartz, J., Bertazzi, P. A. and Baccarelli, A. (2011) ‘Inhalable metal-rich air particles and histone H3K4 dimethylation and H3K9 Acetylation in a Cross-sectional Study of Steel Workers’, Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(7), pp. 964–969. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002955.
Cappelletti, R., Ceppi, M., Claudatus, J. and Gennaro, V. (2016) ‘Health status of male steel workers at an electric arc furnace (EAF) in Trentino, Italy.’, Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England). Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 11, p. 7. doi: 10.1186/s12995-016-0095-8.
Douchanov, D. (Union of C. in B. (2002) ‘σελ92-100.pdf’, Journal of Environmnetal Protection and Ecology, 3(1), pp. 92–100.
Gilani, S. R. and Bhatti, K. P. (2015) ‘Polluted Air Quality Component Analysis from Stack Emission and its Hazardous Consequences on Human Health .’, 12(23).
Hoshuyama, T., Pan, G., Tanaka, C., Feng, Y., Liu, T., Liu, L., Hanaoka, T. and Takahashi, K. (2006) ‘Mortality of Iron-Steel Workers in Anshanl China: A Retrospective Cohort Study’, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health. Taylor & Francis, 12(3), pp. 193–202. doi: 10.1179/oeh.2006.12.3.193.
Iluţiu-Varvara, D.-A., Mârza, C. M., Sas-Boca, I.-M. and Ceclan, V. A. (2015) ‘The Assessment and Reduction of Carbon Oxides Emissions at Electric Arc Furnaces – Essential Factors for Sustainable Development’, Procedia Technology, 19, pp. 402–409. doi: 10.1016/j.protcy.2015.02.057.
Li, L., Lei, Y. and Pan, D. (2016) ‘Study of CO2 emissions in China???s iron and steel industry based on economic input???output life cycle assessment’, Natural Hazards, 81(2), pp. 957–970. doi: 10.1007/s11069-015-2114-y.
Mohamed, J. and Sasi, B. (2013) ‘Air Pollution Caused by Iron and Steel Plants’, 1(3), pp. 1–4.
Poinescu, A.-A., Rizescu, C.-Z., Popa, I.-F., Botea, A. D. and Teodorescu, S. (2010) ‘Monitoring Environmental Pollution with Heavy Metals from Settable and Suspended Powders Resulted from Electric Arc Furnaces - Case Study’, Recent Advances in Energy and Environment, pp. 292–295.
Rynikiewicz, C. (2008) ‘The climate change challenge and transitions for radical changes in the European steel industry’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(7), pp. 781–789. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.03.001.
Sekula, R., Wnek, M. and Selinger, A. (2001) ‘Electric arc furnace dust treatment : investigation on mechanical and magnetic separation methods’, (Zunkel 1997), pp. 271–275.
Shih, S. I., Lee, W. J., Chen, C. C., Liu, M. H. and Wang, L. C. (2007) ‘Emission characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins and dibenzofurans in the stack flue gases of electric arc furnaces’, p. 2007.
Tewari, A. and Shukla, N. P. (1991) ‘Air pollution--adverse effects of sulfur dioxide’, Rev Environ Health, 9(1), pp. 39–46. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1957049.
Thomson, M. J., Evenson, E. J., Kempe, M. J. and Goodfellow, H. D. (2000) ‘Control of greenhouse gas emissions from electric arc furnace steelmaking: evaluation methodology with case studies’, Ironmaking & Steelmaking, 27(4), pp. 273–279. doi: 10.1179/030192300677552.