Hepatotoxicity of Cassia fistula extracts in experimental chicks and assessment of clinical parameters

Irfana Iqbal, Mohammad Afzal, Muhammad N. Aftab, Farkhanda Manzoor, Afshan Kaleem, Ahmad Kaleem


Cassia fistula (Fabaceae) is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants for its antimalarial and antimicrobialactivities. So far, safety of the plant fruit seed as a traditional medicine has not been well investigated. Therefore, theeffect of C. fistula seeds on sub-chronic hepatic toxicity in chicks fed with 30-50 mg/kg methanolic extract of thefruit seeds, for 7-21 days, was investigated. The protective effect of C. fistula on organs and the hematological andbiochemical parameters were examined. At 40 mg/kg dose of C. fistula to chicks showed a non-significant decrease incount of RBCs and other serological values, presumably through a provoked hemolysis of RBCs and/or toxicity of theplant. However, a significant reduction in liver function enzymes (ALP, ALT and AST) urea, and creatinine levels withan increase in plasma protein reflected on its hepato-renal protection. Only nominal pathological lesions were observedin microscopic examination of the chick’s hepatic tissues. We propose that C. fistula fruit seeds are hepatoprotective andrenoprotective.


Cassia fistula; hepatoprotective; medicinal plant; renoprotective; serological.

Full Text:



Abid, R., Mahmood, R., Rajesh, K.P. & Kumara, S.B.E. (2014).

Potential in vitro antioxidant and protective effect of Cassia

fistula Linn.fruit extracts against induced oxidative damage in human

erythrocytes. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science,


Ali, G., Liu, Q., Hua, W. & Huang Wang, D. (2013). Hepatoprotective

evaluation of the total flavonoids extracted from flowers of

Abelmoschusmanihot (L.) Medic: In vitro and in vivo studies. Journal

of Ethnopharmacology, 146(3):794-802.

Chakraborty, T., Bhuniya, D., Chatterjee, M., Rahaman, M. &

Singha, D. (2007). Acanthus ilicifolius plant extract prevents DNA

alterations in a transplantable Ehrlich ascites carcinoma‒bearing murine

model. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 13(48):6538-6548.

Chang, J.J., Hsu, M.J., Huang, H.P., Chung, D.J. & Chang, Y.C.

et al. (2013). Mulberry anthocyanins inhibit oleic acid induced lipid

accumulation by reduction of lipogenesis and promotion of hepatic

lipid clearance. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 61(25):


El-Nahas, Salwa, K.E.N., Afaf, A.A.H., Ahmad, M.A.H. & Heba,

A.A.R. (2014). Effect of methanol extract of three dietary plants

growing in Egypt on mice fed with high fat diet. European Review for

Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 4(3):104-111.

Govindarajan, M. (2009). Bioefficacy of Cassia fistula Linn.

(Leguminosae) leaf extract against chikungunya vector, Aedesaegypti

(Diptera: Culicidae). European Review for Medical and Pharmacological

Sciences, 13(2):99-103.

Govindarajan, M., Jebanesan, A. & Pushpanathan, T. (2008).

Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula Linn.leaf extract

against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes. Parasitology Research,


Grace, M.H., Lategan, C., Graziose, R., Smith, P.J. & Raskin, I. et

al. (2012). Antiplasmodial activity of the ethnobotanical plant Cassia

fistula. Natural Product Communications, 7(10):1263-1266.

Hamden, K., Mnafgui, K., Amri, Z., Aloulou, A. & Elfeki A.

(2013). Inhibition of key digestive enzymes related to diabetes and

hyperlipidemia and protection of liver-kidney functions by trigonelline

in diabetic rats. Scientia Pharmaceutica, 81(1):233-246.

Kalaiyarasia, C., Kalivaradhan, K. & Govindharaj, R. (2015).

Anticonvulsant and anxiolyic activities of ethyl acetate fraction of

Cassia fistula Linn.pods in mice. Pharmacognosy Communication,


Kalantari, H., Jalali, M., Jalali, A., Mahdavinia, M. & Salimi, A.

et al. (2011). Protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against

bromobenzene-induced liver injury in mice. Human & Experimental

Toxicology, 30(10):1039-1044.

Makkar, H.P., Francis, G. & Becker, K. (2007). Bioactivity of

phytochemicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and

potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production systems.

Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience, 1(9):1371-

and Neurobiology, 185(10): 272-280.

Panda, S.K., Padhi, L.P. & Mohanty, G. (2011). Antibacterial activities

and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.).leaf. Journal of

Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research, 2(1):62-67.

Parker, R.A., Garcia, R.A., Ryan, C.S., Liu, X. & Shipkova, P. et

al. (2013). Bile Acid and Sterol Metabolism with Combined HMG

CoA Reductase and PCSK9 Suppression. Journal of Lipid Research,


Patel, D.G., Karbhari, S.S., Gulati, O.D. & Gokhale, S.D. (1965).

Antipyretic and analgesic activities of Aconitum spicatum and Cassia

fistula. Archives Internationales De Pharmacodynamie Et De Therapie,


Perumal, Samy, R., Ignacimuthu, S. & Sen, A. (1998). Screening

of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties. Journal of

Ethnopharmacology, 62(2):173-182.

Ponhong, K., Teshima, N., Grudpan, K., Motomizu, S. & Sakai, T.

(2011). Simultaneous injection effective mixing analysis system for the

determination of direct bilirubin in urinary samples. Talanta, 87(1):113-

Pradeep, K., Mohan, C.V., Anand, K.G. & Karthikeyan, S. (2005).

Effect of pretreatment of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against

subacute CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Indian journal of

Experimental Biology, 43(6): 526-530.

Pradeep, K., Mohan, C.V., Gobianand, K. & Karthikeyan, S. (2007).

Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced

hepatic injury in rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 167(1):12-18.

Pradeep, K., Raj, Mohan, C.V., Gobianand, K. & Karthikeyan, S.

(2010). Protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. ondiethylnitrosamine

induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in ethanol pretreated

rats. Biological Research, 43(1):526-530.

Quraishi, R., Lakshmy, R., Mukhopadhyay, A.K. & Jailkhani, B.L.

(2013). Analysis of the stability of urea in dried blood spots collected

and stored on filter paper. Annals of Laboratory Medicine, 33(3):190-

Raja, N., Albert, S. & Ignacimuthu, S. (2000). Effect of solvent

residues of Vitexnegundo Linn. And Cassia fistula Linn. on pulse

beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and its larval parasitoid,

Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake). Indian Journal of Experimental

Biology, 38(3):290-292.

Reichardt, W. & Eckert, W. (1991). The determination of protein

content of milk, cheese, and meat with the use of the biuret reaction.

Die Nahrung, 35(7):731-738.

Saha, S.K., Das, S.C., Abdullah, A.l.E., Sarker, M. & Uddin, M.A.

et al. (2013). Biochemical alterations and liver toxicity analysis with

pioglitazone in healthy subjects. Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 36(2):


Saoudi, M., Jebahi, S., Jamoussi, K., Ben. & Salah, G. et al. (2011).

Haematological and biochemical toxicity induced by methanol in rats:

ameliorative effects of Opuntia vulgaris fruit extract. Human and

Experimental Toxicology, 30(8): 1963-1971.

Sartorelli, P., Andrade, S.P., Melhem, M.S., Prado, F.O. &Tempone,

A.G. (2007a). Isolation of anti leishmanial sterol from the fruits of

Cassia fistula using bioguided fractionation. Phytotherapy Research:

PTR, 21(7):644-647.

Sartorelli, P., Carvalho, C.S., Reimao, J.Q., Ferreira, M.J. &

Tempone, A.G. (2007b). Antiparasitic activity of biochanin A, an

isolated isoflavone from fruits of Cassia fistula (Leguminosae).

Parasitology Research, 104(2):311-314.

Sartorelli, P., Lago, J.H., Cunha, R.L., Kitamura, R.O. & Young,

M.C. (2012). A new minor dimmeric ester from seeds of Cassia fistula

L. (Leguminosae). Natural Product Research, 26(2):36-41.

Syal, K., Srinivasan, A. & Banerjee, D. (2013). Streptomycin

interference in Jaffe reaction ‒ possible false positive creatinine

estimation in excessive dose exposure. Clinical Biochemistry, 46(1-


Senthil, Kumar, M., Sripriya, R., Vijaya, R.H. & Sehgal, P.K.

(2006). Wound healing potential of Cassia fistula on infected albino rat

model. The Journal of Surgical Research, 131(2):283-289.

Munasinghe, T.C.J., M., Seneviratne, C.K., Thabrew, M.I. &

Abeysekera, A.M. (2001). Antiradical and antilipoperoxidative

effects of some plant extracts used by Sri Lankan traditional medical

practitioners for cardio protection. Phytotherapy Research: PTR,


Yadav, R. & Jain, G.C. (1999). Antifertility effect of aqueous extract of

seeds of Cassia fistula in female rats. Advances in Contraception: The

Official Journal of the Society for the Advancement of Contraception,



  • There are currently no refbacks.