Assessment of Health Risk due to Pb, Cd, and Cr Concentrations in Imported Cheese Samples in Iraq Markets
The aim of this study is to determine three heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Cr) concentrations in cheese samples in Iraq markets that are produced in Iran and Turkey. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Human health risk parameters, such as Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), Target Hazard Quotient (THQ), Hazard Index (HI), and Carcinogenic risk (CR) due to heavy metals were calculated in all cheese samples of the present study. The average value concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr in cheese samples made manufactured in Iran were 4.33±0.57 mg/kg, 0.135±0.03, mg/kg, and 0.183±0.12 mg/kg, respectively. While those which were made in Turkey, the values were found to be 3.89±0.63 mg/kg, 0.167±0.032 mg/kg, and 0.105±0.07 mg/kg, respectively. The average values of HI in Iranian and Turkish cheese samples were 0.526±0.07 and 0.483±0.26, respectively. While the average values of CR×10-6 for Pb, Cd, and Cr in Iranian cheese samples were 0.006±0.0007, 1.13±0.0007, and 0.0056±0.7, respectively. But in Turkish cheese samples were 0.005±0.0008, 0.37±0.07, and 0.65±0.4, respectively. The heavy metal concentrations in the present study were found to be of no statistical significance, compared to the Iranian and Turkish cheese samples, where P-value was (P > 0.05). Most values for Pb, Cd and Cr concentrations were found to be higher than the allowed limits according to EU Regulations, while the health risk parameters were within the accepted worldwide average limits. Therefore, it can be concluded that most cheese samples have no health risks by consuming this cheese by consumers in Iraq.