Investigation of Terminalia arjuna as potential IL-4 and IL-13 modulator for the prevention of autoimmune diabetes: A Pharmacoinformatics based study

DOI: 10.48129/kjs.17337


  • Aziz Unnisa Assistant professor, College of pharmacy, UOH
  • Saheem Ahmad
  • Suresh Babu Jandrajupalli Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Hail, KSA
  • Kareem M. Younes
  • Sally Hassan Abobaker
  • Mohammad Khalid
  • Swarnalatha Chandolu



Cytokines are proteins that play a critical role in the development, maturation, and functional activities of immune cells. For the first time, we have investigated the potential role of Terminalia arjuna as IL-4 and IL-13 modulators for preventing T1DM, i.e., autoimmune diabetes. It has been well documented that the stimulation of IL-4 and IL-13 can regulate the level of type 2 cytokines which can be maintained with the level of type 1 cytokines. In the present study, gallic acid, arjunolic acid, luteolin, ellagic acid, and arjunone were investigated for their potential modulating activity of IL-4 and IL-13. The active amino acid residues identified for IL-4 are VAL51, HIS58, ASP87, THR30, GLN54, THR63, ARG64, LYS84, and GLU60. The active amino acid residues identified for IL-13 are H: GLU46, H: TRP47, H: GLN61, L: PHE98, L: VAL97, L: GLU162, L: THR163, H: ARG105, L: GLN38, L: ASP85, H: GLY42, L: GLY41, H: PRO41, H: TRP47, and L: PHE98. The phytoconstituents demonstrated better modulating activity towards IL-13 than IL-4. Luteolin displayed better potential for both IL-4 and IL-13, and therefore we concluded that it could be used to modulate the activity of IL-4 and IL-13 for the prevention of autoimmune diabetes.

Author Biographies

Saheem Ahmad

Associate Professor, 

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences,

College of Applied Medical Sciences,

University of Hail, KSA.

Kareem M. Younes

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of
Hail, Hail, KSA.

Mohammad Khalid

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin
Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, KSA