Seawater quality characteristics of Kuwait Bay
The research aims to evaluate the spatial variations in seawater quality in Kuwait Bay. Fifty-two seawater samples were collected from 1-meter depth, between April and May 2017, for lab analyses. The results of this study reveal that: (1) average level of physio-chemical parameters: temperature, salinity, conductivity, turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen and pH in Kuwait Bay water were 27.8 0C, 40.2 ppt, 60.2 µs/cm, 5.9 NTU, 6 mg/l and 8.2, respectively; (2) average level of nutrients; silicate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia were 333 µg/l, 83 µg/l, 235 µg/l and 43.5 µg/l, respectively; (3) average level of elements found in Kuwait Bay’s seawater were 14.7 mg/l for Barium (Ba), 380 mg/l for Calcium (Ca), 9727 mg/l for Sodium (Na), 411 mg/l for Potassium (K) and 1432 mg/l for Magnesium (Mg); (4) The total suspended solids (TSS) had an average of 25.3 mg/l; (5) mean concentrations of the elements in TSS decrease in the order of Cr (15.6), Zn (5.4), Se (4.5), Ni (3.3), As (1.2), Co (0.2) and Hg (0.1mg/kg) and they are 1.6 to 22 times lower than their soil background values in, while Pb was detected in 2 samples only with average concentration of 0.7 mg/kg; and (6) Cr shows maximum enrichment relative to the upper continental crustal component (Mn). The distribution of pollutants in Kuwait Bay seems to be controlled mainly by the anthropogenic and recreational activities.