Sedimentary and mineralogy characteristics of late quaternary sediments, Garmian area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq
The quaternary sediments have been studied in four sections (Sar-Qallah-1, Sar-Qallah-2, Salih-Agha and Rzgari) from Garmian area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq. The quaternary deposits of multi-features, multi-sources, and variable lithological, compositional characteristics in this area and mostly either of depositional or erosional geomorphological features. The grain size granulometry of the studied samples by using the sieve method was identified, gravel size partially is producing a greater amount than sand and mud size in both sections (Sar-Qallah-1 and Salih-Agha). In addition, depending on statistical parameters that were applied to the study samples such as (mean, mode, sorting, skewness and kurtosis), the results have shown that the sediments are very poorly sorted, very fine skewed and platykurtic. Petrographic studies of sediments under polarize microscope investigated that these sediments consist of predominated of (chert and carbonate rock fragments) with few amounts of igneous and metamorphic rock fragments, feldspar and monocrystalline quartz. These fragments types are indications of multiple source rocks originate from Ophiolites and thrust sheets from the Penjween area, Kurdistan Region (Iraq). Moreover, types of heavy minerals are identified, include opaque (hematite and pyrite) and nonopaque minerals (pyroxene, amphibole, epidote and zircon). X-ray diffraction technique is used to interpret clay mineralogy. The result is chlorite and palygorskite are the main clay mineral with non-clay minerals such as quartz and calcite.