Data Analysis and Forecasting of COVID-19 Pandemic in Kuwait Based on Daily Observation and Basic Reproduction Number Dynamics
Coronavirus (COVID-19) has continued to be a global threat to public health. When the coronavirus pandemic began early in 2020, experts wondered if there would be waves of cases, a pattern seen in other virus pandemics. The overall pattern so far has been one of increasing cases of COVID-19 followed by a decline, and we observed a second wave of increased cases and yet we are still exploring this pandemic. Hence, updating the prediction model for the new cases of COVID-19 for different waves is essential to monitor the spreading of the virus and control the disease. Time series models have extensively been considered as the convenient methods to predict the prevalence or spreading rate of the disease. This
study, therefore, aimed to apply the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) modelling approach for predicting new cases of coronavirus (COVID-19). We propose a deterministic method to predict the basic reproduction number Ro of first and second wave transition of COVID-19 cases in Kuwait and also to forecast the daily new cases and deaths of the pandemic in the country. Forecasting has been done using ARIMA model, Exponential smoothing model, Holt’s method, Prophet forecasting model and machine learning models like log-linear, polynomial and support vector regressions. The results presented aligned with other methods used to predict Ro in first and second waves and the
forecasting clearly shows the trend of the pandemic in Kuwait. The deterministic prediction of Ro is a good forecasting tool available during the exponential phase of the contagion, which shows an increasing trend during the beginning of the first and second waves of the pandemic in Kuwait. The results show that support vector regression has achieved the best performance for prediction while a simple exponential model without trend gives good optimal results for forecasting of Kuwait COVID-19 data.