Hydrothermally growth of TiO2 Nanorods, characterization and annealing temperature effect

Authors

  • Adel H. Omran Alkhayatt University of Kufa Faculty of Science
  • Nada Falih M Faculty of Science, University of Kuf,
  • Saleem Azara Hussain College of Education, University of Al Qadisiyah, Iraq
  • Shawki Khalaf Muhammad Faculty of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.48129/kjs.v48i3.10417

Keywords:

TiO2 nanorods, Hydrothermal method, Annealing effect, Anatase and Rutile phases, Surface morphology.

Abstract

Titanium dioxide TiO2 nanorods were successfully grown on conductive glass FTO substrate by hydrothermal method at temperature 160 oC. Surface topography, structure and optical characteristics were studied according to the influence of annealing temperature (450, 550 and 650) oC. The surface topography results reveal that the TiO2 had nanorods structure with tetragonal shape and the rod diameter increases from 84.2 nm to 116.6 nm with increasing the annealing temperature. The crystal structure of the grown TiO2 NRs exhibits high crystallinity of polycrystalline nature with anatase and rutile phases. The preferential orientation was along (204) plane for anatase tetragonal structure. AFM image shows an intense edge, uniform surface morphology, and the grain diameter was increased with annealing temperature. The optical properties of TiO2 NRs were investigated and the absorption edge shows blue shifting as the annealing temperature increases when considering the crystallinity and morphology changes. The energy band gap was lower than 3 eV that can be attributed to the presence of anatase and rutile phases and increment from  2.72 to 2.86 nm with the increment of annealing temperature. The results indicate that the adopted hydrothermal method and the synthesized TiO2 NRs were suitable for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

References

B Keerthana, T Solaiyammal, S Muniyappan and P Murugakoothan Mater. Lett. 220 20 (2018).

A Khataee and G Mansoori Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide Materialsn (World Scientific Publishing Company), p 4 (2011).

A Tsevis, N Spanos, P Koutsoukos, A. Van der Linde and J. Lyklema J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94 295 (1998).

D Komaraiah, P Madhukar, Y Vijayakumar, M Reddy and R Sayanna Mater. Today Proc. 3 3770 (2016).

H Tang, F Levy, H Berger and P Schmid Phys. Rev. B 52 7771 (1995).

K Suslick Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology 4th ed. (J. Wiley & Sons New York), p 517 (1998).

I Oja, A Mere, M Krunks, C Solterbeck and M Souni Solid State Phenomena 99 259 (2004).

L Bedikyan, S Zakhariev and M Zakharieva J. Chem. Technol. Metall. 48 555 (2013).

S Martínez, S Martínez, C Arellano, A González, I Tránsito A Pérez and M Cruzc J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 359 93 (2018).

M Byranvand, A Kharat, L Fatholahi and Z Beiranvand J. nanostructures 3 1 (2013).

S Seifried, M Winterer and H Hahn Chem. Vap. Depos. 6 239 (2000).

L Palmisano, V Augugliaro, A Sclafani and M Schiavello J. Phys. Chem. 92 6710 (1988).

W Idris MSc Thesis (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia) (2015).

B Bregadiolli, S Fernandes and C Graeff Materials Research 20 912 (2017).

T Wirunmongkol, N O-charoen and S. Pavasupree 34 801 (2013).

A Reddy, A Mallika, K Babu and K Reddy International Journal of Mining Metallurgy & Mechanical Engineering 3 52 (2015).

X Li, X Han, D Zhu, Y Chen, L Li, Z Ma, Y Gu, F Ren and J Huang Optical Materials 91 101 (2019).

H Huang, X Hou, J Xiao, L Zhao, Q Huang, H Chenc and Y Li Catalysis Today 330 189–(2019).

S Daneshvar e Asl, A Saed and S Sadrnezhaad Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 93 252 (2019).

M Liao, L Fang, C Xu, F Wu, Q Huang and M Saleem Materials Sciencein Semiconductor Processing 24 1 (2014).

A Alkhayatt and S Hussian Materials Letters 155 109 (2015).

A Alkhayatta, S Hussain, E Mahdi Optik 159 305 (2018).

K Manikandan, A Ahmed, A Thirugnanasundar and G Brahmanandhan Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures 10 1427 (2015).

M Jaafer, A Alkhayatt and S. Saleh The 1st International Scientific Conference on Pure Science IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1234 p 012001 (2019).

I Zgaira, A Alkhayatta, A Muhmood and S Hussain Optik 191 48 (2019).

L Rožić, S Petrović, D Lončarević, B Grbić, N Radić, S Stojadinović, V Jović and J Lamovec Ceramics International 45 2361 (2019).

T Malevu, B Mwankemwa, S Motloung, K Tshabalala and R Ocaya Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 106 127 (2019).

A Muaz, U Hashim, M Arshad, A Ruslinda, R Ayub, S Gopinath, C Voon, W Liu and K Foo International Conference on Nano-electronic Technology Devices and Materials (AIP Conf. Proc. 1733) p 020087 (2015).

A Bakri, M Sahdan, F Adriyanto, N Raship, N Said, S Abdullah and M Rahim, International Conference on Engineering, Science and Nanotechnology (AIP Conf. Proc. 1788) p 030030 (2017).

A Alkhayatt, A Habieb, A Al-Noaman and A Hameed The 1st International Scientific Conference on Pure Science IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1234 p 012012 (2019)..

E Keskenler, G Turgut, S Aydin and S Dogan Sci. Res. Essays 7 3816 (2012).

A Alkhayatta and S Hussian, Surfaces and Interfaces 8 176 (2017).

A Dussan A Bohórquez and H Quiroz Applied Surface Science 424 111 (2017).

Published

24-06-2021