Flow Characterization Near the Nozzle Exit of the Supersonic Steam Jet Injecting into the Stagnant Water


  • AFRASYAB KHAN South Ural State University (SUSU). Russian Federation. http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9230-202X
  • Khairuddin Sanaullah Informetrics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.




Steam-water flow, Supersonic, Shear layer, Flow Eddies, Entrainment.


Injection of supersonic steam into a subcooled water has vital significance mainly due to the safety measures in water-cooled nuclear power plants, where it acts as a heat sink to discharge the steam as part of Reactor Coolant System (RCS), the phenomena occur here is Direct Contact Condensation (DCC). There has been a large amount of work being conducted on the thermo-dynamics of the DCC; however, not much attention was given to the phenomena particular active near the steam’s nozzle exit. To characterize the flow dynamics within the region adjacent to the steam’s nozzle exit, an experimental study was conducted. A transparent rectangular upright duct of 4 ft high, was built with a supersonic nozzle positioned at the bottom of the channel. Particle image velocimetry was applied to draw information on the steam’s jet penetration into the water as well as the entrainment and mixing between the two phases under the steam’s inlet pressure ranging from 1.5 – 3.0 bars. Here, flow dynamics was looked thoroughly within the region close to the exit of the supersonic steam’s exit. The region was characterized by normalized velocity and the normalized vertical, and radial distances, the jet’s mid velocity (Ue) at nozzle exit and nozzle exit dia (De) were the normalizing factors respectively. PIV normalized contour measurements depicted the change in radial velocity of the jet was small. Wheres, in the core region of the jet, the change in the jet’s velocity was not much till Y/De ~ 4.3 and vertical velocity of the jet decreased slowly till Y/De ~ 8. The jet’s normalized upward velocity attained an optimized value between Y/De ~ 8 and Y/De ~ 9.8. With varying pressures, 1.5 bars to 3.0 bars, the jet expanded radially in water. It was also found in the near nozzle exit region, the shear layer’s thickness remained within 0.2 – 0.5 De over the 1.5 – 3.0 bars pressure. Probability Density Function (PDF) analysis of Reynolds shear and normal stresses, confirmed that the velocity fluctuations across the shear layer originated because of the existence of the large eddies among the steam-water interface and the resulting profiles were Gaussian.

Author Biographies

AFRASYAB KHAN, South Ural State University (SUSU). Russian Federation.

AFRASYAB KHAN (Senior Researcher)

Affiliation: South Ural State University (SUSU). Russian Federation.

Full Mailing Address: Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Hydraulics and Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems, South Ural State University, Lenin Prospect 76, Chelyabinsk, 454080, Russian Federation.

Khairuddin Sanaullah, Informetrics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Informetrics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University. Ho Chi Minh City,Vietnam.




Afrasyab, K., Sanaullah, K., Takriff, M.S., Zen, H., Fong, L.S., 2013. Inclined Injection of Supersonic Steam into Subcooled Water: A CFD Analysis. Adv. Mater. Res. 845, 101–107. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.845.101

Ben-Yakar, A., Mungal, M.G., Hanson, R.K., 2006. Time evolution and mixing characteristics of hydrogen and ethylene transverse jets in supersonic crossflows. Phys. Fluids 18, 026101. doi:10.1063/1.2139684

Brown, G.L., Roshko, A., 1974. On density effects and large structure in turbulent mixing layers. J. Fluid Mech. 64, 775–816. doi:10.1017/S002211207400190X

Cattafesta, L., Alvi, F., Williams, D., Rowley, C., 2003. Review of Active Control of Flow-Induced Cavity Oscillations (Invited). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). doi:10.2514/6.2003-3567

Chun, M.H., Kim, Y.S., Park, J.W., 1996. An investigation of direct condensation of steam jet in subcooled water. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf. 23, 947–958. doi:10.1016/0735-1933(96)00077-2

Davidenko, D., Gökalp, I., Dufour, E., Magre, P., 2003. Numerical simulation of hydrogen supersonic combustion and validation of computational approach, in: 12th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies. doi:10.2514/6.2003-7033

Furudate, M., Lee, B.J., Jeung, I.S., 2005. Computation of HyShot scramjet flows in the T4 experiments, in: A Collection of Technical Papers - 13th AIAA/CIRA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference. pp. 1419–1428. doi:10.2514/6.2005-3353

Gardner, A.D., Hannemann, K., Paull, A., Steelant, J., 2005. Ground testing of the HyShot supersonic combustion flight experiment in HEG, in: Shock Waves. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 329–334. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-27009-6_47

Gruber, M.R., Nejadt, A.S., Chen, T.H., Dutton, J.C., 1995. Mixing and penetration studies of sonic jets in a mach 2 freestream. J. Propuls. Power 11, 315–323. doi:10.2514/3.51427

Kaufman, L.G., 1967. Hypersonic flows past transverse jets. J. Spacecr. Rockets 4, 1230–1235. doi:10.2514/3.29057

Khan, A., 2014. CFD Based Hydrodynamic Parametric Study of Inclined Injected Supersonic Steam into Subcooled Water. doi:10.3850/978-981-09-4587-9_P03

Khan, A., Haq, N.U., Chughtai, I.R., Shah, A., Sanaullah, K., 2014. Experimental investigations of the interface between steam and water two phase flows. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 73, 521–532. doi:10.1016/J.IJHEATMASSTRANSFER.2014.02.035

Khan, A., Sanaullah, K., Haq, N.U., 2013. Development of a Sensor to Detect Condensation of Super-Sonic Steam. Adv. Mater. Res. 650, 482–487. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.650.482

Khan, A., Sanaullah, K., Sobri Takriff, M., Hussain, A., Shah, A., Rafiq Chughtai, I., 2016a. Void fraction of supersonic steam jet in subcooled water. Flow Meas. Instrum. 47, 35–44. doi:10.1016/J.FLOWMEASINST.2015.12.002

Khan, A., Sanaullah, K., Takriff, M.S., Zen, H., Rigit, A.R.H., Shah, A., Chughtai, I.R., 2016b. Numerical and experimental investigations on the physical characteristics of supersonic steam jet induced hydrodynamic instabilities. Asia-Pacific J. Chem. Eng. 11, 271–283. doi:10.1002/apj.1963

Khan, A., Takriff, M.S., Rosli, M.I., Othman, N.T.A., Sanaullah, K., Rigit, A.R.H., Shah, A., Ullah, A., Mushtaq, M.U., 2019. Turbulence dissipation & its induced entrainment in subsonic swirling steam injected in cocurrent flowing water. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 145, 118716. doi:10.1016/J.IJHEATMASSTRANSFER.2019.118716

Khan, A., Takriff, M.S., Sanaullah, K., Zwawi, M., Algarni, M., Felemban, B.F., Bahadar, A., Shah, A., Rigit, A.R.H., 2020. Periodic compression and cavitation induced shear between steam-water two-phase flows for bio-materials degradation. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 1591–1626. doi:10.1007/s13762-019-02601-2

Ko, H., Yoon, W.S., 2002. Performance analysis of secondary gas injection into a conical rocket nozzle. J. Propuls. Power 18, 585–591. doi:10.2514/2.5972

Larson, W.J., Henry, G.N., Humble, R.W., 1995. Space propulsion analysis and design. McGraw-Hill.

Martinez Schramm, J., Karl, S., Hannemann, K., Steelant, J., 2008. Ground testing of the HyShot II scramjet configuration in HEG, in: 15th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference. doi:10.2514/6.2008-2547

Matlab, n.d. Find edges in intensity image - MATLAB edge [WWW Document]. URL https://www.mathworks.com/help/images/ref/edge.html (accessed 7.8.20).

Mi, J., Kalt, P., Nathan, G.J., Wong, C.Y., 2007. PIV measurements of a turbulent jet issuing from round sharp-edged plate. Exp. Fluids 42, 625–637. doi:10.1007/s00348-007-0271-9

Olsen, M.G., Dutton, J.C., 2003. Planar velocity measurements in a weakly compressible mixing layer. J. Fluid Mech. 486, 51–77. doi:10.1017/S0022112003004403

Papamoschou, D., Roshko, A., 1988. The compressible turbulent shear layer: An experimental study. J. Fluid Mech. 197, 453–477. doi:10.1017/S0022112088003325

Rowley, C.W., Williams, D.R., 2006. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF HIGH-REYNOLDS-NUMBER FLOW OVER OPEN CAVITIES. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 38, 251–276. doi:10.1146/annurev.fluid.38.050304.092057

Sarno, R.L., Franke, M.E., 1994. Suppression of flow-induced pressure oscillations in cavities. J. Aircr. 31, 90–96. doi:10.2514/3.46459

Solovitz, S.A., Mastin, L.G., Saffaraval, F., 2011. Experimental study of near-field entrainment of moderately overpressured jets. J. Fluids Eng. Trans. ASME 133. doi:10.1115/1.4004083

Song, Chul-Hwa; Cho, Seok; Kim, Hwan-Yeol; Bae, Yoon-Young; Chung, M.-K., 2007. THERMAL-HYDRAULIC TESTS AND ANALYSES FOR THE APR1400’S DEVELOPMENT AND LICENSING. Nucl. Eng. Technol. 39. doi:10.5516/NET.2007.39.4.299

Song, Chul-Hwa; Cho, Seok; Kim, Hwan-Yeol; Bae, Yoon-Young; Chung, M.-K., n.d. Characterization of direct contact condensation of steam jets discharging into a subcooled water (Conference) | ETDEWEB [WWW Document]. URL https://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/20071733 (accessed 7.11.20).

Turner, J.S., 1986. Turbulent entrainment: The development of the entrainment assumption, and its application to geophysical flows. J. Fluid Mech. 173, 431–471. doi:10.1017/S0022112086001222

Ukeiley, L.S., Ponton, M.K., Seiner, J.M., Jansen, B., 2004. Suppression of pressure loads in cavity flows. AIAA J. 42, 70–79. doi:10.2514/1.9032

Urban, W.D., Mungal, M.G., 1997. Planar velocity measurements in compressible mixing layers, in: 35th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA. doi:10.2514/6.1997-757

US7842264B2 - Process and apparatus for carbon capture and elimination of multi-pollutants in flue gas from hydrocarbon fuel sources and recovery of multiple by-products - Google Patents [WWW Document], n.d. URL https://patents.google.com/patent/US7842264B2/en (accessed 7.1.20).

Vakili, A.D., Gauthier, C., 1994. Control of cavity flow by upstream mass-injection. J. Aircr. 31, 169–174. doi:10.2514/3.46470

Vanierschot, M., Persoons, T., Van den Bulck, E., 2009. A new method for annular jet control based on cross-flow injection. Phys. Fluids 21, 025103. doi:10.1063/1.3037343

Weimer, J.C., Faeth, G.M., Olson, D.R., 1973. Penetration of vapor jets submerged in subcooled liquids. AIChE J. 19, 552–558. doi:10.1002/aic.690190321

Wu, X.Z., Yan, J.J., Pan, D.D., Liu, G.Y., Li, W.J., 2009. Condensation regime diagram for supersonic/sonic steam jet in subcooled water. Nucl. Eng. Des. 239, 3142–3150. doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2009.08.010

Wu, X.Z., Yan, J.J., Shao, S.F., Cao, Y., Liu, J.P., 2007. Experimental study on the condensation of supersonic steam jet submerged in quiescent subcooled water: Steam plume shape and heat transfer. Int. J. Multiph. Flow 33, 1296–1307. doi:10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2007.06.004

Zakkay, V., Calarese, W., Sakell, L., 1971. An experimental investigation of the interaction between a transverse sonic jet and a hypersonic stream. AIAA J. 9, 674–682. doi:10.2514/3.6247

Zhao, H., Zhang, H., Jin, X., 2018. Efficient image decolorization with a multimodal contrast-preserving measure. Comput. Graph. 70, 251–260. doi:10.1016/j.cag.2017.07.009

Zukoski, E.E., Spaid, F.W., 1964. Secondary injection of gases into a supersonic flow. AIAA J. 2, 1689–1696. doi:10.2514/3.2653