Lateral growth of Safeen anticline as deduced from drainage analysis, Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Authors

Abstract

Safeen anticline is one of the largest anticlines in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR), with NW – SE trend. The anticline shows clear lateral growth as deduced from different anomalous drainage patterns and forms, besides different geomorphological forms, which are indicative of lateral growth. Among those forms are water gaps, wind gaps, abandoned alluvial fans, and different shapes of valleys. Two hanging synclines exist on both sides of the anticline forming unique geomorphological and structural forms in IKR. The anticline is developed in the High Folded Zone (HFZ) of Iraq. It is part of the Zagros Fold–Thrust Belt (ZFTB), with the exposed rocks of the Qamchuqa Formation (Early Cretaceous), which consists mainly of limestone and dolostone, which are the oldest rocks in the core of the anticline. Two main streams named Shaqlawa and Kori dissect the anticline from the northern and southern sides. We have explained their trends and abnormal courses. We have used geological maps and high-resolution satellite images to interpret geomorphological forms and to confirm the lateral growth of the anticline. A field investigation was carried out to check and confirm the interpreted data; accordingly, we identified the anticline's lateral growth based on the interpreted geomorphological and structural forms.

Author Biographies

Varoujan K. Sissakian, Department of Natural Resource Engineering and Management, University of Kurdistan

Mr. Varoujan K. Sissakian

graduated from the University of Baghdad in 1969 with B.Sc. degree in Geology, and M.Sc. in Engineering Geological Mapping from I.T.C., the Netherlands in 1982. He joined Iraq Geological Survey (GEOSURV) in 1971 and was nominated as Expert in 2005; retired in 2012. He has 125 documented reports in GEOSURV's library and 171 published articles in different geological aspects in different geological journals and 24 articles in different stages of publications. He was the Deputy Vice President of the Middle East Subcommission of the Committee of Compilation the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), Paris, from February 2010 until August 2012. He was Visiting Lecturer in University of Kurdistan, Hewler, since October, 2014 and Lecturer since February, 2017. Currently, he is a Lecturer in the University of Kurdistan Hewler.

Lanja H. Abdullah, Department of Geology, College of science, University of Sulaimani, KRG, Iraq

Mrs. Lanja Abdullah is a Lecturer at the University of Kurdistan.

Currently, she is a Ph.D. student in Geomorphology.

Published

28-11-2022

Issue

Section

Earth & Environment